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Brexit referendum

brexit referendum

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Brexit Referendum Video

Dog owners demand second Brexit referendum März ; abgerufen am 5. Das geplante Referendum wurde in die königliche Thronrede vom Februar ibrahimovic taekwondo, nach mehr als stündigen Verhandlungen, gaben die EU-Regierungschefs bekannt, dass eine Einigung erzielt worden sei. Social Best casino games in las vegas and Labour Party. In einigen Ptsports, insbesondere der Labour-Partei, gab es prominente Politiker, Beste Spielothek in Hengstheide finden öffentlich eine andere Auffassung als die offizielle Parteilinie vertraten. Als das Ergebnis des Referendums bekannt wurde, erhielt eine im Internet durchgeführte Petition Zuspruch, die auf eine Wiederholung des Referendums abzielte. Mai gestartet worden, [] mehr als vier Wochen vor dem Referendum. Das wäre "fast so inakzeptabel wie gar kein Deal". Um Ihnen ein besseres Nutzererlebnis zu bieten, verwenden wir Cookies. Deal or no deal? Denn dann bleibe die Fairness im wirtschaftlichen Wettbewerb gewahrt. Nordirland hatte schon immer eine gespaltene Gesellschaft: In einem Leser Post habe ich vor ein paar tagen gelesen, dass Referendum zum Austritt sei nur eine "Empfehlung" [ Doire Finn, 23, aus einem Grenzort bei Newry. Auf dem Parteitag der Konservativen herrscht indes ein harter Ton: Der Deal muss danach noch von den Parlamenten der Mitgliedsstaaten ratifiziert werden. Themen Future , Brexit , Irland , Nordirland. Wer sein Volk für mündig und informiert genug hält, die Grundsatzentscheidung über einen EU-Austritt zu fällen, der sollte ihm auch die Kompetenz geben, das verhandelte Ergebnis zu bewerten.

Brexit referendum -

Juni , abgerufen am 4. Juli , abgerufen am 9. Social Democratic and Labour Party, archiviert vom Original am 3. Januar , abgerufen am 3. Während die Konservativen und ihre neue Vorsitzende Margaret Thatcher überwiegend pro-europäisch eingestellt waren, gab es die prominentesten EWG-Kritiker in den er- und Anfang der er-Jahre in den Reihen der Labour-Partei , insbesondere in derem linken Parteiflügel. Juni , abgerufen am 1. Nigel Farage trat am 4.

Guidelines by the Charity Commission for England and Wales that forbid political activity for registered charities have kept them silent on the EU poll.

In May , more than historians wrote in a joint letter to The Guardian that Britain could play a bigger role in the world as part of the EU.

Following David Cameron's announcement of an EU referendum, British think tank the Institute of Economic Affairs IEA announced in July a competition to find the best plan for a UK exit from the European Union, declaring that a departure is a "real possibility" after the general election.

A Blueprint for Britain: Analysis of polling suggested that young voters tended to support remaining in the EU, whereas those older tend to support leaving, but there was no gender split in attitudes.

The number of jobs lost or gained by a withdrawal was a dominant issue; the BBC's outline of issues warned that a precise figure was difficult to find.

The Leave campaign argued that a reduction in red tape associated with EU regulations would create more jobs and that small to medium-sized companies who trade domestically would be the biggest beneficiaries.

Those arguing to remain in the EU, claimed that millions of jobs would be lost. The EU's importance as a trading partner and the outcome of its trade status if it left was a disputed issue.

Whilst those wanting to stay cited that most of the UK's trade was made with the EU, those arguing to leave say that its trade was not as important as it used to be.

Scenarios of the economic outlook for the country if it left the EU were generally negative. The United Kingdom also paid more into the EU budget than it received.

Citizens of EU countries, including the United Kingdom, have the right to travel, live and work within other EU countries, as free movement is one of the four founding principles of the EU.

After the announcement had been made as to the outcome of the referendum, Rowena Mason, political correspondent for The Guardian offered the following assessment: The EU had offered David Cameron a so-called "emergency brake" which would have allowed the UK to withhold social benefits to new immigrants for the first four years after they arrived; this brake could have been applied for a period of seven years.

The possibility that the UK's smaller constituent countries could vote to remain within the EU but find themselves withdrawn from the EU led to discussion about the risk to the unity of the United Kingdom.

The UK cannot possibly continue in its present form if England votes to leave and everyone else votes to stay".

The scheduled debates and question sessions included a number of question and answer sessions with various campaigners.

The voting areas were grouped into twelve regional counts and there was separate declarations for each of the regional counts.

In England, as happened in the AV referendum , the districts were used as the local voting areas and the returns of these then fed into nine English regional counts.

In Scotland the local voting areas were the 32 local councils which then fed their results into the Scottish national count, and in Wales the 22 local councils were their local voting areas before the results were then fed into the Welsh national count.

Northern Ireland, as was the case in the AV referendum, was a single voting and national count area although local totals by Westminster parliamentary constituency areas were announced.

Gibraltar was a single voting area, but as Gibraltar was to be treated and included as if it were a part of South West England, its results was included together with the South West England regional count.

The following table shows the breakdown of the voting areas and regional counts that were used for the referendum. On 16 June , one pro-EU Labour MP, Jo Cox , was shot and killed in Birstall, West Yorkshire the week before the referendum by a man calling himself "death to traitors, freedom for Britain", and a man who intervened was injured.

On polling day itself two polling stations in Kingston upon Thames were flooded by rain and had to be relocated. Although this was widely dismissed as a conspiracy theory, some Leave campaigners advocated that voters should instead use pens to mark their ballot papers.

On polling day in Winchester an emergency call was made to police about "threatening behaviour" outside the polling station. After questioning a woman who had been offering to lend her pen to voters, the police decided that no offence was being committed.

The final result was announced on Friday 24 June at The decision by the electorate was to "Leave the European Union" which won by a majority of 1,, votes 3.

Voting figures from local referendum counts and ward-level data using local demographic information collected in the census suggested that Leave votes were strongly correlated with lower education and higher age.

EU referendum vote by age and education, based on a YouGov survey. The referendum was criticised for not granting people younger than 18 years of age a vote.

Unlike in the Scottish independence referendum , the vote was not extended to and year-old citizens. Critics argued that these people would live with the consequences of the referendum for longer than those who were able to vote.

Some supporters for the inclusion of these young citizens considered this exclusion a violation of democratic principles and a major shortcoming of the referendum.

The foreign ministry of Ireland stated on 24 June that the number of applications from the UK for Irish passports had increased significantly.

More than a hundred racist abuse and hate crimes were reported in the immediate aftermath of the referendum, with many citing the plan to leave the European Union.

No more Polish vermin". The killing of a Polish national Arkadiusz Jozwik in Harlow, Essex in August [] was widely speculated to be linked to the Leave result.

The petition had actually been initiated by someone favouring an exit from the EU, one William Oliver Healey of the English Democrats on 24 May , when the Remain faction had been leading in the polls, and had received 22 signatures prior to the referendum result being declared.

Healey also claimed that the petition had been "hijacked by the remain campaign". On 27 June , David Cameron's spokesperson stated that holding another vote on Britain's membership to the European Union was "not remotely on the cards".

There must be no attempts to remain inside the EU Its response said that the referendum vote "must be respected" and that the government "must now prepare for the process to exit the EU".

On 24 June, the Conservative Party leader and Prime Minister David Cameron announced that he would resign by October because the Leave campaign had been successful in the referendum.

The leadership election was scheduled for 9 September. The new leader would be in place before the autumn conference set to begin on 2 October.

The Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn faced growing criticism from his party, which had supported remaining within the EU, for poor campaigning.

This led to a string of Labour MPs quickly resigning their roles in the party. The vote did not require the party to call a leadership election [] but after Angela Eagle and Owen Smith launched leadership challenges to Corbyn, the Labour Party UK leadership election, was triggered.

Corbyn won the contest, with a larger share of the vote than in On 4 July Nigel Farage stood down as the leader of UKIP, stating that his "political ambition has been achieved" following the result of the referendum.

Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said on 24 June that it was "clear that the people of Scotland see their future as part of the European Union" and that Scotland had "spoken decisively" with a "strong, unequivocal" vote to remain in the European Union.

In reaction to the lack of a unified pro-EU voice following the referendum, the Liberal Democrats and others discussed the launch of a new centre-left political movement.

On the morning of 24 June, the pound sterling fell to its lowest level against the US dollar since The referendum result also had an immediate impact on some other countries.

On 28 June , former governor of Bank of England Mervyn King said that current governor Mark Carney would help to guide Britain through the next few months, adding that the BOE would undoubtedly lower the temperature of the post-referendum uncertainty, and that British citizens should keep calm, wait and see.

On 5 January , Andy Haldane , chief economist and the executive director of monetary analysis and statistics at the Bank of England , admitted that the bank's forecasts predicting an economic downturn should the referendum favour Brexit had proved inaccurate given the subsequent strong market performance.

In August the Electoral Reform Society published a highly critical report on the referendum and called for a review of how future events are run.

Looking ahead, the society called for an official organisation to highlight misleading claims and for Office of Communications Ofcom to define the role that broadcasters were expected to play.

The BBC called the referendum result for Leave with its projected forecast at David Dimbleby announced it with the words:. The remark about was incorrect: On 9 May , Leave.

On 4 March , the Information Commissioner's Office also reported that it was 'conducting a wide assessment of the data-protection risks arising from the use of data analytics, including for political purposes' in relation to the Brexit campaign.

It was specified that among the organisations to be investigated was Cambridge Analytica and its relationship with the Leave. In the run-up to the Brexit referendum, Prime Minister David Cameron suggested that Russia "might be happy" with a positive Brexit vote, while the Remain campaign accused the Kremlin of secretly backing a "Leave" vote in the referendum.

The article identified 13, Twitter accounts that posted a total of about 65, messages in the last four weeks of the Brexit referendum campaign, the vast majority campaigning for a "Leave" vote; they were deleted shortly after the referendum.

In November , the Electoral Commission told The Times that it had launched an inquiry to "examine the growing role of social media in election campaigns amid concerns from the intelligence and security agencies that Russia is trying to destabilise the democratic process in Britain".

After denying it for over a year, Facebook admitted in November that it was targeted by Russian trolls in the run-up to the Brexit referendum.

EU funder Arron Banks had met Russian officials "multiple times" from to and had discussed "a multibillion dollar opportunity to buy Russian goldmines".

In February , the Electoral Commission announced that it was investigating the spending of Stronger In and Vote Leave, along with smaller parties, as they had not submitted all the necessary invoices, receipts, or details to back up their accounts.

In November , the Electoral Commission said that it was investigating allegations that Arron Banks , an insurance businessman and the largest single financial supporter of Brexit, violated campaign spending laws.

In December , the Electoral Commission announced several fines related to breaches of campaign finance rules during the referendum campaign.

In May , the Electoral Commission fined Leave. The Electoral Commission's director of political finance and regulation and legal counsel said that the "level of fine we have imposed has been constrained by the cap on the commission's fines".

On 14th September , following a High Court of Justice case, the court found that Vote Leave had received incorrect advice from the UK Electoral Commission , but confirmed that the overspending had been illegal.

Vote Leave subsequently said they would not have paid it without the advice. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Issues Endorsements Opinion polling Results Causes. Organisations advocating and campaigning for a referendum. People's Pledge Labour for a Referendum.

Bruges Group Campaign for an Independent Britain. The Movie In or Out. Calls for second vote. Organisations campaigning for a second vote via People's Vote.

Other organisations campaigning for a second vote. Opposition to Brexit in the United Kingdom. European Union Referendum Act Campaigning in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, For the positions of backbench MPs and other politicians, see Endorsements in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Opinion polling for the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

Issues in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Results of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, International reactions to the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

Aftermath of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Conservative Party UK leadership election, Labour Party UK leadership election, Proposed second Scottish independence referendum.

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We would love strong UK in strong EU". Retrieved 17 July Trump gives Brexit blessing as he blames 'crazy migration' for EU collapse". Retrieved 18 March How 'Brexit' Impacts American Politics".

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Brexit 'could damage NHS', health boss warns". The Press and Journal. According to the Lisbon Treaty , Council of the EU decisions made by qualified majority voting can only be blocked if at least four members of the Council form a blocking minority.

This rule was originally developed to prevent the three most populous members Germany, France, Britain from dominating the Council of the EU.

With Brexit, the EU would lose its second-largest economy, the country with the third-largest population and "the financial capital of the world", as the German newspaper Münchner Merkur put it.

Thus, the departure of Britain would result in an additional financial burden for the remaining net contributors, unless the budget is reduced accordingly: The departure of the UK is expected to have a major effect on the EU.

The exit of the UK from the European Union means that this blocking minority can no longer be assembled leading to speculation that it could enable the other EU countries to enforce specific proposals such as relaxing EU budget discipline or providing EU-wide deposit guarantees within the banking union.

The EU will need to decide on the revised apportionment of seats in the European Parliament in time for the next European Parliament election, expected to be held in June , when the United Kingdom's 73 MEPs will have vacated their seats.

In April , a group of European lawmakers discussed what should be done about the vacated seats. One plan, supported by Gianni Pittella and Emmanuel Macron , is to replace the 73 seats with a pan-European constituency list; other options which were considered include dropping the British seats without replacement, and reassigning some or all of the existing seats from other countries to reduce inequality of representation.

Paul Gallagher , a former Attorney General of Ireland , has suggested this will isolate those countries and deprive them of a powerful partner that shared a common interest in ensuring that EU legislation was not drafted or interpreted in a way that would be contrary to the principles of the common law.

The combined EU fishing fleets land about 6 million tonnes of fish per year, [] of which about 3 million tonnes are from UK waters.

The UK government announced in July that it would end the convention in Loss of access to UK waters will particularly affect the Irish fishing industry which obtains a third of its catch there.

The policy is generally considered a disadvantage to fish-rich countries and is a major reason why Norway and Iceland are not members. Various EU leaders said that they would not start any negotiation before the UK formally invokes Article German foreign secretary Frank-Walter Steinmeier met Britain's foreign secretary Boris Johnson on 4 November ; Johnson stressed the importance of British-German relationships, whereas Steinmeier responded that the German view was that the UK should have voted to stay in the EU and that the German priority now was to preserve the remaining union of 27 members.

There could be no negotiations before the UK formally gives notice. A long delay before beginning negotiations would be detrimental.

Britain could not keep the advantages of the single market but at the same time cancel the "less pleasant rules". On 15 July , she said: Nick Clegg said the figures showed the Civil Service was unprepared for the very complex negotiations ahead.

These consist of an end to European Court of Justice jurisdiction, withdrawal from the single market with a "comprehensive free-trade agreement" replacing this, a new customs agreement excluding the common external tariff and the EU's common commercial policy , an end to free movement of people , co-operation in crime and terrorism, collaboration in areas of science and technology, engagement with devolved administrations, maintaining the Common Travel Area with Ireland , and preserving existing workers' rights.

She also confirmed, "that the Government will put the final deal that is agreed between the UK and the EU to a [ meaningful] vote in both Houses of Parliament, before it comes into force.

The Government has stated its intention to "secure the specific interests of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, as well as those of all parts of England".

EU negotiator Guy Verhofstadt , the European parliament's chief negotiator, said that: That means a number of things: We need to have an arrangement in which this arrangement can continue for those citizens who on an individual basis are requesting it.

An EU meeting to discuss Brexit was called for 29 April , Donald Tusk stating that the "priority would be giving "clarity" to EU residents, business and member states about the talks ahead".

Barnier called for talks to be completed by October to give time for any agreement to be ratified before the UK leaves in March The European Commission has, following the "Better regulation" initiative, in place since before Brexit, reduced the number of legislative proposals from to 23 per year.

Following the EU referendum, there have been many opinion polls on the question of whether the UK was "right" or "wrong" to vote to leave the EU.

The results of these polls are shown in the table below. There have also been opinion polls on how people would vote in a second referendum on the same question.

On 6 July , the UK Cabinet agreed a statement at Chequers that set out a proposal for the future relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union , [] following which two members of the Cabinet resigned.

She proposed a referendum with three options: Voters would be asked to mark a first and second preference using the supplementary vote system.

If there were no majority for any particular option among first-preference votes, the third-placed option would be eliminated and second preferences would be used to determine the winner from the two remaining options.

The following table shows opinion polls that have been conducted on how people would vote in such a three-option referendum.

The table shows the poll results for a first round in which all three options would be available, and for a second round in which only the top two options in the first round would be available.

There have been opinion polls to gauge support for a second referendum on whether to accept or reject the final Brexit deal.

The response of artists and writers to Brexit has in general been negative, reflecting a reported overwhelming percentage of people involved in Britain's creative industries voting against leaving the European Union.

Responses by visual artists to Brexit include a mural, painted in May , by the secretive graffiti artist Banksy near the ferry port at Dover in southern England.

It shows a workman using a chisel to chip off one of the stars on the European Union Flag. In his art exhibition at the Serpentine Gallery in London, the artist Grayson Perry showed a series of ceramic, tapestry and other works of art dealing with the divisions in Britain during the Brexit campaign and in its aftermath.

This included two large ceramic pots, Perry called his Brexit Vases, standing on plinths ten feet apart, on the first of which were scenes involving pro-European British citizens, and on the second scenes involving anti-European British citizens.

These were derived from what Perry called his "Brexit tour of Britain. One of the first novels to engage with a post-Brexit Britain was Rabbitman by Michael Paraskos published 9 March Rabbitman is a dark comic fantasy in which the events that lead to the election of a right-wing populist American president, who happens also to be a rabbit, and Britain's vote to leave the European Union, were the result of a series of Faustian pacts with the Devil.

As a result, Rabbitman is set partly in a post-Brexit Britain in which society has collapsed and people are dependent on European Union food aid.

Mark Billingham's Love Like Blood published 1 June is a crime thriller in which Brexit sees a rise in xenophobic hate crime.

Post-Brexit Britain is also the setting for Amanda Craig 's The Lie of the Land published 13 June , a satirical novel set ten years after the vote to leave the European Union, in which an impoverished middle class couple from Islington in north London are forced to move from the heart of the pro-European Union capital, to the heart of the pro-Brexit countryside in Devon.

Brexit is also the baseline for Douglas Board's comic political thriller Time of Lies published 23 June In this novel, the first post-Brexit general election in is won by a violent right-wing former football hooligan called Bob Grant.

Board charts the response to this of the hitherto pro-European Union metropolitan political elite. Stanley Johnson 's Kompromat scheduled for July is a political thriller that suggests the vote to leave the European Union was a result of Russian influence on the referendum, although Johnson has insisted his book is not intended to point the finger at Russia's secret services , but is "just meant to be fun.

An allegorical work, the play uses the device of a convention called by the goddess Britannia , who is concerned about the future of the British people.

In , the television director Martin Durkin wrote and directed an 81 minute long documentary film titled Brexit: Following the Brexit vote, there have been several attempts to set up a new pro-European political party.

In , newly elected Liberal Democrats leader Vince Cable criticised 'pop up' anti-Brexit parties formed following the referendum, saying of those groups' policies " From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

United Kingdom's planned withdrawal from the European Union. Issues Endorsements Opinion polling Results Causes. Organisations advocating and campaigning for a referendum.

People's Pledge Labour for a Referendum. Bruges Group Campaign for an Independent Britain. The Movie In or Out.

Calls for second vote. Organisations campaigning for a second vote via People's Vote. Other organisations campaigning for a second vote.

Opposition to Brexit in the United Kingdom. Part of a series on the. History of women Military history. Opinion polling for the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, United Kingdom renegotiation of European Union membership, — Campaigning in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Results of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Aftermath of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Russian interference in the Brexit referendum.

European Union Withdrawal Act Economic effects of Brexit. Brexit and arrangements for science and technology.

Continuing UK relationship with the EU. Effect of Brexit on Gibraltar. Impact of Brexit on the European Union. This will be midnight Central European Time.

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Journal of Economic Perspectives. The results I summarize in this section focus on long-run effects and have a forecast horizon of 10 or more years after Brexit occurs.

Less is known about the likely dynamics of the transition process or the extent to which economic uncertainty and anticipation effects will impact the economies of the United Kingdom or the European Union in advance of Brexit.

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Retrieved 9 September Retrieved 1 July Mit Merkel wird es kein Rosinenpicken für die Briten geben" [Brexit parliamentary debate: With Merkel there will be no cherrypicking for the British].

Theresa May to trigger Article 50 by end of March". Retrieved 16 October UK to leave single market, says Theresa May". The UK's letter triggering Article 50".

Retrieved 15 May Council of the European Union Website. Council of the European Union. Retrieved 14 April What's in the document, and what it really means".

UK 'not obliged' to pay divorce bill say peers". Expatriates, the first armwrestling match between London and Brussels]".

London wants to keep EU citizens in Britain]. Britain and EU at odds over citizens' rights". Retrieved 20 July London bleibt zu Brexit-Rechnung unverbindlich" [Second round of negotiations in Brussels: London remains non-committal to Brexit bill].

Retrieved 21 July UK and EU at odds over "exit bill " ". Brexit customs proposal short on details". UK leaving EU court's jurisdiction".

Jean-Claude Juncker criticises UK's position papers". Retrieved 30 August Retrieved 2 September Retrieved 5 September Retrieved 7 September Retrieved 1 November — via YouTube.

UK needs to clarify issues — Macron". Retrieved 23 September Retrieved 28 September Retrieved 8 December EU leaders agree to move talks to next stage".

Retrieved 19 December Giuseppe Conte to head populist coalition". Retrieved 11 June In those circumstances, Brexit does not merely become a second-order issue for the EU.

Any Brexit deal would also resonate differently in Britain. The EU with which British MPs and voters may be asked to approve a deal this autumn could be a less stable and predictable political entity.

Retrieved 20 June Retrieved 23 July Retrieved 6 February Retrieved 12 July Retrieved 19 April UKIP needed to stop Brexit 'backsliding ' ".

Retrieved 29 April Retrieved 25 April Labour's 'day one' pledge to EU nationals". Retrieved 13 June — via SNP website.

Retrieved 13 June Retrieved 12 June For investors Britain remains Number One in Europe]". Retrieved 12 June — via FAZ. Retrieved 2 November When the Dust Settles: Migration Policy after Brexit.

Migration Policy Institute Commentary. The Nurses and Doctors Leaving London". Huw; Soegaard, Christian How economists are being proved right on Brexit Barry Eichengreen".

Thinking ahead by leading economists". The extent of agreement among economists on the costs of Brexit was extraordinary: Unlike the short-term effects of Brexit, which have been better than most had predicted, most economists say the ultimate impact of leaving the EU still appears likely to be more negative than positive.

But the one thing almost all agree upon is that no one will know how big the effects are for some time.

It won't mean Armageddon, but the broad consensus among economists — whose predictions about the initial fallout were largely too pessimistic — is for a prolonged effect that will ultimately diminish output, jobs and wealth to some degree.

Retrieved 30 January Institute for Fiscal Studies. Retrieved 18 June Retrieved 13 December Economic exposure to Brexit in regions and countries on both sides of The Channel".

Papers in Regional Science. Retrieved 11 August Archived from the original on 19 August Retrieved 4 October Britain better off going for hard Brexit".

Bank of England — Central Banking". How Brexit advocates intend to smear economics". Brexit Predictions Were Wrong". Retrieved 26 May UK research and the European Union: Retrieved 18 July The Huffington Post UK.

Retrieved 3 February

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