Berechnung eines Luhncheck Digits (Modulo 10). Diese "Prüfziffernrechner" entstand auf der Suche nach einem Prüfziffernrechner gem. Modulo 10 ( Luhncheck. Juni Prüfziffernberechnung nach Modulo Modulo 10 ist eine weit verbreitete Methode, eine Überprüfung von Identifikationsnummern. Wir leben in Zeiten einer immer stärkeren digitalen Vernetzung. Da sind es immer häufiger die persönlichen Begegnungen, die im privaten und beruflichen.
Modulo 10 VideoExplicação sobre Fórmula de compasso, compasso composto MTS módulo 10
In applied mathematics, it is used in computer algebra , cryptography , computer science , chemistry and the visual and musical arts.
A very practical application is to calculate checksums within serial number identifiers. In chemistry, the last digit of the CAS registry number a unique identifying number for each chemical compound is a check digit , which is calculated by taking the last digit of the first two parts of the CAS registry number times 1, the previous digit times 2, the previous digit times 3 etc.
RSA and Diffie—Hellman use modular exponentiation. In computer algebra, modular arithmetic is commonly used to limit the size of integer coefficients in intermediate calculations and data.
It is used in polynomial factorization , a problem for which all known efficient algorithms use modular arithmetic. It is used by the most efficient implementations of polynomial greatest common divisor , exact linear algebra and Gröbner basis algorithms over the integers and the rational numbers.
In computer science, modular arithmetic is often applied in bitwise operations and other operations involving fixed-width, cyclic data structures.
The modulo operation , as implemented in many programming languages and calculators , is an application of modular arithmetic that is often used in this context.
XOR is the sum of 2 bits, modulo 2. The method of casting out nines offers a quick check of decimal arithmetic computations performed by hand. Arithmetic modulo 7 is used in algorithms that determine the day of the week for a given date.
In particular, Zeller's congruence and the Doomsday algorithm make heavy use of modulo-7 arithmetic. More generally, modular arithmetic also has application in disciplines such as law see for example, apportionment , economics , see for example, game theory and other areas of the social sciences , where proportional division and allocation of resources plays a central part of the analysis.
Since modular arithmetic has such a wide range of applications, it is important to know how hard it is to solve a system of congruences.
A linear system of congruences can be solved in polynomial time with a form of Gaussian elimination , for details see linear congruence theorem.
Some operations, like finding a discrete logarithm or a quadratic congruence appear to be as hard as integer factorization and thus are a starting point for cryptographic algorithms and encryption.
These problems might be NP-intermediate. Solving a system of non-linear modular arithmetic equations is NP-complete. Below are three reasonably fast C functions, two for performing modular multiplication and one for modular exponentiation on unsigned integers not larger than 63 bits, without overflow of the transient operations.
If not andall that is wrong is a 10 is showing up when it should be zero, change the formula to: As a 2-step calculation: As a 1-step calculation: Works like a charm.
I'm sorry I wasn't a little clearer on what I wanted to accomplish, but this is new to me. I am going to try to decipher the formula piece by piece; it is the only way for me to learn what you did.
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The substitution digits , that is, the results of the double and reduce procedure, were not produced mechanically.
Rather, the digits were marked in their permuted order on the body of the machine. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Raised if an int conversion fails return False. Retrieved from " https: Modular arithmetic Checksum algorithms Error detection and correction introductions.